# Universal Constants

# Universal Constants

There are many other important constants in physics, chemistry, and mathematics. But these are the foundational constant of our known cosmos. If these values were different, then our existence could have not been possible.

# | Constant Name | Symbol | value |
---|---|---|---|

1 | constant of gravitation | G | 6.67384 × 10^{−11} cubic meter per second squared per kilogram |

2 | speed of light (in a vacuum) | c | 2.99792458 × 10^{8} meters per second |

3 | Planck’s constant | h | 6.626070040 × 10^{−34} joule second |

4 | Boltzmann constant | k | 1.38064852 × 10^{−23} joule per kelvin |

5 | Faraday constant | F | 9.648533289 × 10^{4} coulombs per mole |

6 | electron rest mass | m_{e} |
9.10938356 × 10^{−31} kilogram |

7 | proton rest mass | m_{p} |
1.672621898 × 10^{−27} kilogram |

8 | neutron rest mass | m_{n} |
1.674927471 × 10^{−27} kilogram |

9 | charge on electron | e | 1.6021766208 × 10^{−19} coulomb |

10 | Rydberg constant | R∞ | 1.0973731568508 × 10^{7} per metre |

11 | Stefan-Boltzmann constant | σ | 5.670367 × 10^{−8} watt per square metre per kelvin^{4} |

12 | fine-structure constant | α | 7.2973525664 × 10^{−3} |

13 | Pi | π | 3.14159 |

14 | Phi, Golden ratio | φ | 1.61803 39887 49894 84820 (x^2 – x-1 = 0) |

15 | Euler’s number | e | 2.71828 18284 59045 23536 |

16 | Natural logarithm of 2 | ln(2) | 0.69314 71805 59945 30941 |